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Massimo MatteoFormal Slip-On
Figure 2 with 1 supplement
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() Schematic of the Type Ib motor neuron innervating both muscles 6 and 7 at the NMJ. is expressed specifically on muscle six in combination with using M6>Gal4 (M6…

Figure 2—figure supplement 1
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() Representative images of muscle 6/7 NMJs of wild type and M6>mCherry () labeled with phalloidin …

A single Ib motor neuron (RP3) bifurcates to innervate both muscles 6 and 7 at the Drosophila NMJ ( Broadie and Bate, 1993 ) ( Tecnica Moon Boot WE Low Glitter zbWK0
). Having established strong and selective knock down of the GluRIIA subunit on muscle six in M6>GluRIIA RNAi , we next characterized synaptic function and homeostatic plasticity. As expected, mEPSP amplitudes on muscle 6 were diminished at M6>GluRIIA RNAi NMJs, while mEPSP amplitudes were not affected on the adjacent muscle 7 ( Figure 3A–C ). We considered three possibilities for how presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites may be modulated within the single Ib terminal in response to GluRIIA knock down exclusively on muscle 6. First, if PHP signaling is communicated to synapses in the Ib motor neuron innervating muscle 6, but the entire motor neuron undergoes PHP adaptations, then quantal content would be enhanced on both muscles 6 and 7. Second, PHP signaling may be communicated to synapses innervating only muscle 6, but PHP expression may be occluded without simultaneous signaling also received from muscle 7, leading to no change in quantal content on either muscle. Finally, if PHP signaling is target-specific and compartmentalized, then quantal content should be selectively enhanced on synapses innervating muscle 6 in response to reduced GluRIIA expression, while synaptic function at synapses innervating the adjacent muscle seven would be unchanged. Results of electrophysiological recordings were consistent with this last model: EPSP amplitude was similar on both muscles 6 and 7 in M6>GluRIIA RNAi and not significantly different compared to wild type ( Figure 3A,D ). Indeed, quantal content was selectively enhanced only at synapses innervating muscle 6, while quantal content at synapses innervating muscle seven was unaffected ( Figure 3B,E ). Thus, PHP can be induced and expressed exclusively at a subset of synapses within the same motor neuron without influencing neurotransmitter release at neighboring sites.

Figure 3
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() Schematic and electrophysiological traces of recordings from muscles 7 and 6 of wild type and M6>GluRIIA NMJs. Note that mEPSPs are reduced only on muscle 6 of M6>GluRIIA, while EPSP …

The results above suggest that while PHP was chronically induced and expressed specifically on synapses innervating muscle 6, the adjacent synapses within the same motor neuron that innervate muscle seven were apparently not affected. One possibility is that PHP adaptations are induced throughout the entire motor neuron innervating both muscles 6 and 7, but that negative regulators are active that repress or occlude the expression of PHP on synapses innervating muscle 7. Indeed, such a model has been proposed ( Müller et al., 2011 ). In this case, PHP should not be capable of being induced or expressed at the synapses innervating muscle seven in M6>GluRIIA RNAi . PHP can be acutely induced and expressed through a pharmacological blockade of the postsynaptic GluRs using a 10-min incubation in the presence of the antagonist philanthotoxin-433 (PhTx; [ Frank et al., 2006 ]). This results in an acute reduction in mEPSP amplitude due to blockade of GluRIIA-containing receptors in the postsynaptic muscle, but EPSP amplitudes are maintained because of PHP expression. We reasoned that acute application of PhTx to M6>GluRIIA RNAi NMJs would enable us to determine whether PHP could be induced and expressed at synapses innervating muscle 7 following chronic expression of PHP on the adjacent synapses innervating muscle 6.

1981 Ed., § 22-3202.

1973 Ed., § 22-3202.

This section is referenced in § 4-751.01 , § 5-113.32 , § 22-4513 , § 23-1322 , Dolce Vita Rilee Heeled Slide Womens lpzfEqbGb
, § 24-403 , § 24-403.01 , and GENTLE SOULS Camelia Peep Toe Bootie HDbOmWmj

D.C. Law 13-302 , in subsec. (a), in par. (1), substituted “up to, and including, 30 years for all offenses except first degree murder while armed, second degree murder while armed, first degree sexual abuse while armed, and first degree child sexual abuse while armed imprisonment” for “up to life imprisonment”, in par. (2), substituted “to a period of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and, except for first degree murder while armed, second degree murder while armed, first degree sexual abuse while armed and first degree child sexual abuse while armed, not more than 30 years” for “to a minimum period of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and a maximum period of imprisonment which may not be less than 3 times the minimum sentence imposed and may be up to life imprisonment”, and added pars. (3) and (4); repealed subsec. (b) which had read: “(b) Where the maximum sentence imposed under this section is life imprisonment, the minimum sentence imposed under subsection (a) of this section may not exceed 15 years imprisonment.”; in subsec. (c), deleted “on parole” following “not be released”; and repealed subsec. (d) which had read: “(d) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any person sentenced under subsection (a)(2) of this section may be released on parole in accordance with Chapter 4 of Title 24 , at any time after having served the minimum sentence imposed under that subsection.”

D.C. Law 13-313 , in subsec. (c), substituted “paragraph (1), (2), or (3)” for “paragraph (1) or (2)”; and, in subsec. (e), in par. (1), inserted “or to any person convicted more than once of having committed a crime of violence or a dangerous crime in the District of Columbia sentenced under subsection (a)(3) of this section”, and in par. (2), substituted “paragraphs (2) or (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

D.C. Law 18-88 , in subsec. (a)(2), substituted “Columbia, or an offense in any other jurisdiction that would constitute a crime of violence or dangerous crime if committed in the District of Columbia,” for “Columbia,”.

The 2012 amendment by D.C. Law 19-170 added “or a dangerous crime” following “a crime of violence” in (c).

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